Given is an ambiguous term. By given it means "there is" or "one is". It can also mean "to" and "a". I feel the need to point out that it is in fact the latter sense that is commonly used in everyday language, when we say things like "She was given a dress", "He was given a watch" or "The dog was given a bone." But given is not a grammatical word. And its use in science can be explained by pointing out that a given quantity or rate of temperature is a constant.
Given, then, is used to indicate something definite. This indicates that one thing is compared against another. Examples are: "The student is falling behind." "The boy hit the ball three times." "The boy hit the ball once then ran two miles." (foll by: compared to what)
Given can also be used to indicate something indefinite. For example: "The dog will get the job." "The cat has lived five years." "The man has won the lottery." "The man is going to have the new car."
However, this use of "given" is very seldom used in modern English. Most words are either used with or without an inflection. For example, to be is used for the past tense, and for the future tense. We do not have the inflections "is been", "was being", "will be" or "is about to be". In that way, for any language there is only one clear usage of "given".
I have a few ideas for future articles that might be interesting. First, we should explore the parallel use of "as" in the sentences "The man slept on the couch as he watched the news." and "The man sleeps on the couch while he watches the news." Notice that both sentences contain the word "as" and "while". Well, it is possible that the "as" is used here because in the future, when the news is being watched, the man may change his sleeping places.
We can also explore the parallel use of "be" for the present tense. This could mean the future, but the meaning is the same. So "Be is the man who is sleeping on the couch while he watches the news." Finally, we should discuss "the" for the present tense, and see if there is an obvious difference between "the man is getting the job" and "he is getting the job." Do you think any of these examples help us to learn anything about the English language?